This smell arises when an inheritance hierarchy is "too" wide indicating that intermediate types may be missing.
The following set of tools detects this smell: Designite(for C#) DesigniteJava(for Java)
G. Suryanarayana, G. Samarthyam, T. Sharma, “Refactoring for Software Design Smells: Managing Technical Debt”. Morgan Kaufmann, 2014.
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